Thank you, Steve. I am happy to join you today for this conversation.

First, let me thank the Government of Qatar and the Soufan Center for the invitation.

Let me respond to your question in terms of both health and security.

These are challenges that no country can address on its own, whether in Africa, the Middle East, or anywhere.

That’s why I chose to answer your question using these two.

Insecurity is caused by shortfalls in governance.

Sometimes insecurity takes especially dangerous forms, such as terrorism or even genocide, as was the case in Rwanda.

It crosses borders and affects neighbours and entire regions.

Despite many chances to learn lessons from past failures, the global toolbox for dealing with these threats has hardly evolved.

For example, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, a peacekeeping mission has operated for 20 years, with meagre results.

While we saw what happened in Afghanistan, with a 20-year commitment from the international community.

The efforts in the Sahel region to contain armed groups have also not yet managed to transform the security landscape.

The point is not to cast blame. But at a minimum, we can say that something is very wrong in terms of how cross-border security threats are dealt with.

It is not from lack of engagement or lack of money.

I would say that no amount of external funding or troop commitment can create sustainable peace, without putting governance at the center of it all.

Because of our country’s history, Rwanda is committed to contributing to peacebuilding operations and making a difference where we can.

We have done so multilaterally, through the United Nations or the African Union, such as in the Central African Republic or in Sudan and South Sudan.

In fact, Rwanda has been among the top five UN troop-contributing countries for several years now.

Lately, we have responded to a bilateral appeal from the Government of Mozambique to combat the radical insurgency in Cabo Delgado.

External forces can create the safety and political space for new forms of consensus-based leadership within a society to gain the upper hand. But it can’t be forced or imposed.

Let me conclude with a word about vaccine inequity. Clearly, the record has been mixed.

The delayed roll-out of vaccines in Africa and other developing countries has hampered global recovery and probably allowed new Covid variants to emerge.

That is why it is so visible because it is bad news for everyone.

But vaccine inequality is just one form of inequality in the world. It is a reflection of the wider economic and social imbalances that have been there for a long time.

That needs to be dealt with because as we see over and over, global health and security are closely intertwined.

I think the real question facing us is whether we are ready to learn that lesson, and work together in new and better ways, and demand better results.

Steve, thank you again, and I’m looking forward to taking questions from you and from the audience.